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Bone Marrow Transplant Unit

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit

Bone marrow transplant involves replacing the bone marrow which generates new blood cells. Pediatric blood diseases may not malignant, but they can have a life-changing influence on a child's quality of life and, in certain situations, can be fatal.

Childhood blood diseases like childhood anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia, congenital sideroblastic anemia, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia can be treated with bone marrow transplants. Children with selective types of cancer & blood disorders including, sickle cell disease, leukemia and thalassemia can also benefit from a bone marrow transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant is a major and complex procedure, and require utmost care and dedicated oncology expertise. At Rainbow Children's Hospital, our team of Pediatric Oncologists, Hematologists and super specialists are renowned for extensive bone marrow transplantation procedures and have performed over 70 successful Bone Marrow Transplants till date.

The Bone Marrow Transplant Unit (BMTU) at the Rainbow Children’s Hospital has the following services:
- In-house blood bank facility
- RO water for all-purpose use
- High-efficiency particulate air module (HEPS) filters for maintaining positive air pressure inside the BMTU unit & for filtering particles
- Laminar hood to prepare medications in a sterile environment
- Pass boxes for sterilizing items like food that are taken inside the BMTU
- Round the clock availability of doctors and one-to-one barrier nursing for ensuring a high success rate

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Leading Bone Marrow Transplant Unit Hospitals

What is Bone Marrow?

It is a spongy and soft tissue filling the inside of the bones. Red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets are produced in the bone marrow. Any damage to the bone marrow can affect your ability to fight off diseases and infections. This condition is known as immune deficiency or immunosuppression. A bone marrow transplant hospital in India and experts will help you knowing more about Bone Marrow.

What is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

A Bone Marrow Transplant is a procedure in which the stem cells that produce the blood are transferred intravenously into the patient. During the procedure, the transplant will be replacing the missing or defective marrow. It is also used on children that have gone through radiation or high dose chemotherapy.

Stem cells are first taken from a donor from either the bone marrow, the umbilical cord blood, or the circulating peripheral blood. These stem cells will be transfused into the bloodstream of the patient. The cells will find their way to the marrow spaces of the bone. Once they reach there, they will start growing and multiplying and repopulating the bloodstream with RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. best hospital for bone marrow transplant in India and best hospital for bone marrow transplant in Bangalore provides the best treatment for Bone Marrow Transplantation.

When is there a need for a Bone Marrow Transplant?

There are three situations that call the need for a Bone Marrow Transplant:

When bone marrow fails and a BMT is needed for replacing the abnormal or the absent blood cells. The functional stem cells then produce the blood cells and help strengthen the immune system.

When your child has cancer, the BMT is needed for replacing the stem cells that were killed because of radiation therapy and high dose chemotherapy.

When there are some genetic errors present, BMT is needed for replacing the absent or defective cells that originated in the bone marrow.

What conditions can be treated using a Bone Marrow Transplant?

Here are some of the conditions that require a Bone Marrow Transplant:

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD)
Aplastic anemia
Brain tumors
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Epidermolysis Bullosa
Ewing's sarcoma
Fanconi Anemia
Globoid cell
Hodgkin's disease
Hurlers syndrome
Immune deficiency
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)
Krabbe’s Disease
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)
Multiple Myeloma
Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Sickle Cell Anemia

What are the different forms of Stem Cell Transplant?

Here are the 3 different forms of Stem Cell Transplant:

Allogenic - In this, stem cells are taken from an acceptable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor match for your child. This can be a related or unrelated donor.

Autologous - In this, stem cells from your child are taken before they undergo a conditioning or an intense preparative regimen. The stem cells are given back to them after the procedure.

Syngeneic - In this, stem cells are taken from the identical twin of your child.

From where are stem cells harvested?

The stem cells can be harvested through the following:

From the hip bone of the donor. Anesthesia is used on the patient and then blood is collected from the middle of the marrow space or the bone.

From their peripheral blood. In this case, special intravenous catheters are used where they are connected to a machine that is filtering the blood and collecting the stem cells.

From a cord blood unit. In such cases, mothers donate their blood to the registry of stem cells. After the birth of the baby, blood from the umbilical cord that is rich in hematopoietic stem cells is frozen so that it can be used later.

What are the risks involved in the Bone Marrow Transplant?

Here are the risks involved in the Bone Marrow Transplant:

Complications to organs - The procedure of bone marrow transplant can damage other organs of the body. The most commonly affected organs are the heart, kidneys, lungs, and liver. It is important that during the procedure, all the organs are closely monitored.

Infection - The immune system of your body will be weak making them at high risk for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. The infections can be from within the body or from an outside source. To prevent infections, your child will be given medications. There are new medicines and therapies that can be used for preventing and treating medications. In some cases, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), s special immune system is delivered to prevent viral infections.

Mucositis - This is a side effect of chemotherapy where the mucous membranes are destroyed resulting in pain, inflammation, and bleeding. This can affect the throat, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract. This side effect resolves when the WBC count increases. There are some pain and palliative services that can minimize your child’s discomfort.

Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) - This condition is caused when the donor’s graft is recognized by the body as a foreign substance and it triggers a reaction. It can damage the organs of the body affecting their functionality. The condition can be anywhere between mild and life-threatening. There are some medications that your doctor might prescribe your child which suppresses the immune system. However, this makes your body more vulnerable to infections.

Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) - This is a condition in which the blood vessels get inflamed causing the formation of small blood clots. This can result in high blood pressure, leakage of protein from urine, and kidney injury. In extreme cases, the heart, lungs, and gut are affected as well. You can visit the best bone marrow transplant surgery hospital in Bangalore for the best treatment.