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Urinary tract infections are common. They have a varied presentation. Neonates and infants may present with poor feeding, loose stools, dull activity. A toddler or an older child may present with fever, crying on passing urine, pus like urine. Urine infections with high grade fever and urine culture growing bacteria need evaluation. They may indicate an underlying structural anomaly. The most common cause in a neonate or an infant may be Hydronephrosis or Reflux of Urine. Older children may also voiding dysfunction, phimosis, urinary passage anomalies. The tests done are: Complete urine examination (to look for pus cells/ blood in urine), Urine culture to see if bacteria is present Ultrasound- to look for any swelling of kidneys or ureter Micturating cystourethrogram (an X-ray is taken while the child is voiding)- to look for reflux, bladder anomalies, urethral obstruction Nuclear scan of kidneys- to evaluation function and drainage of kidney (to look for obstruction of urine draining from kidney, to look for any renal damage from infections) Urodynamic study - to look at how the bladder responds to storage and emptying or urine (if the storage is under pressure, capacity is less) Some children may need regular monitoring, modification of behaviour. Some children may need surgery to correct the structural anomaly

Dr. Lavanya Kannaiyan

Consultant - Pediatric Surgeon and Pediatric Urologist

Rainbow Children's Hospital, Banjara Hills