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The brain is among the most delicate and important organs in the body. If there is any dysfunction of the nervous system of the brain, it can result in neurological problems that display physical or psychological symptoms. These conditions can affect anyone. However, there are a few neurological conditions that only occur during the first few years of development. These conditions either manifest as birth defects or are diagnosed during later years. Most of the neurological symptoms are picked up when the child has a brain infection/injury or if they miss a developmental milestone. There are several neurological conditions affecting the pediatric population. Rainbow Children’s Hospital has the best child specialist in Bangalore who can treat or help manage different neurological disorders. In this article, we will be discussing a few of these neurological disorders: Autism This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is increasingly being recognized all over the world. The condition manifests as impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication. This is accompanied by repetitive, restricted behaviour patterns with strict adherence to restricted interests and routine. Children with autism see and perceive things differently as compared to others. The exact cause of autism is unknown, but there are several genetic, behavioural, and environmental factors that are known to develop this condition. An autistic child might have challenged communication and social skills, emotional disorders, and speech impairment. These children need different interventional techniques as per their age and development. Not all autistic children will benefit from one treatment. Every individual is unique and needs a different treatment including behavioural treatments and medications. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is another common neurological condition in children that can continue until adolescents. Since the symptoms of this condition are daydreaming and forgetfulness, many children are left undiagnosed. A child with ADHD is unable to control their impulses or be attentive. That is why they are often distracted and can’t finish tasks. The cause of this condition can be hereditary factors, brain injury, substance abuse, or poor nutrition. It can be managed by medication and therapy. It is important to note that not every hyperactive child has ADHD. There are specific criteria to be diagnosed with ADHD. Dyspraxia This is a lesser-known yet common condition in children in which they are not able to coordinate physical movements. It also makes maintaining balance and posture difficult. Since the nerve cells controlling the muscle movement have a different development in each person, no exact cause has been established for this condition. If the child is diagnosed early, the condition can be improved with specific interventions such as process-oriented occupational therapy. Epilepsy This is a common condition affecting people of all ages that is characterized by multiple seizures. A temporary disturbance in the brain cells can cause seizures. However, there are some factors like genetics, injury to the brain before birth, infectious diseases, or developmental disorders that can result in epilepsy. The severity of seizures varies according to the individual. It can be treated using medications and lifestyle interventions. Headaches Most of the headaches are not a symptom of a neurological disorder. However, in rare cases, it can be the result of a serious underlying condition. Headaches can occur when there has been a change in the brain or the body that has sent pain messages to the brain. It is important that headaches are monitored in children, especially if they are accompanied by vomiting, reduced alertness, or clumsiness. Dyslexia This is a common learning disability in children where they are not able to read, spell, or write accurately. The exact cause of dyslexia is yet to be identified. The treatment involves implementing specific teaching methods to help kids. If diagnosed early, children with dyslexia are able to read above-average levels. Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy can affect the motor skills of your child. It is caused by brain damage occurring before or during birth. This common neurodevelopmental disorder can be divided into different types according to neurological signs. Children with Cerebral Palsy have difficulty in movements like walking, standing, eating, bowel and bladder control, and even talking. Therapies and treatment can help improve the condition of the child, but the condition is incurable. Every neurological condition affects children in different ways. Some of these can be cured while there are some that can only be managed. In either case, early detection is crucial to prevent further complications. It is important that parents remain attentive to unusual symptoms depicted by their child and take the concerns of their child seriously. In case there is any doubt, it is recommended to seek a medical opinion immediately. Parents must be open and work with their neuro critical care specialist to meet the needs of their child. Visit the best pediatrician in Hyderabad to know more about the available treatment options.
MD (Peds), DNB, MRCPCH (UK), Fellow Ped.Hemato-Oncology and BMT (UK)
Rainbow Children's Hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad